Basics

Grid

The grid provides structure for website content. The flexible design adjusts for different devices.

Standard grid

Twelve-column grid with flexible column widths and fixed gutters. The width of the padding on the left and right edge of the grid depends on device size.

  • 30px fixed gutter width
  • Max width 1230px, background colors may bleed to edge
  • Desktop: 30px padding on each side
  • Tablet: 30px padding on each side
  • Mobile: 15px padding on each side
one
one
one
one
one
one
one
one
one
one
one
one
two
two
two
two
two
two
two
three
two
three
two
three
three
three
three
four
four
four
six
six
twelve

HTML code snippet

<div class="cols-12">
    <section>
        <div class="col col-1"><div>one</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1"><div>one</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1"><div>one</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1"><div>one</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1"><div>one</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1"><div>one</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1"><div>one</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1"><div>one</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1"><div>one</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1"><div>one</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1"><div>one</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1"><div>one</div></div>
    </section>

    <section>
        <div class="col col-2"><div>two</div></div>
        <div class="col col-2"><div>two</div></div>
        <div class="col col-2"><div>two</div></div>
        <div class="col col-2"><div>two</div></div>
        <div class="col col-2"><div>two</div></div>
        <div class="col col-2"><div>two</div></div>
    </section>

    <section>
        <div class="col col-2"><div>two</div></div>
        <div class="col col-3"><div>three</div></div>
        <div class="col col-2"><div>two</div></div>
        <div class="col col-3"><div>three</div></div>
        <div class="col col-2"><div>two</div></div>
    </section>

    <section>
        <div class="col col-3"><div>three</div></div>
        <div class="col col-3"><div>three</div></div>
        <div class="col col-3"><div>three</div></div>
        <div class="col col-3"><div>three</div></div>
    </section>

    <section>
        <div class="col col-4"><div>four</div></div>
        <div class="col col-4"><div>four</div></div>
        <div class="col col-4"><div>four</div></div>
    </section>

    <section>
        <div class="col col-6"><div>six</div></div>
        <div class="col col-6"><div>six</div></div>
    </section>

    <section>
        <div class="col col-12"><div>twelve</div></div>
    </section>
</div>

Breakpoints

Five major breakpoints standardize large-scale changes like navigation and sidebar behavior. Use other breakpoints as necessary.

  • xs: 0-600px
  • sm: 601-900px
  • med: 901-1020px
  • lg: 1021-1230px
  • xl: 1231px and up

Development

Warning: This document is written for people who might want to create a grid system using our Less mixins, and does not itself document how we have used our own mixins to create a grid system. Nor does it document how to use said grid system. This page probably needs a major re-write.


The grid component is a suite of Less variable and mixins that enables you to lay out a flexible 12-column grid with fixed-size gutters. (Column widths will expand and contract with the width of the page, but the gutter width remains constant.) The mixins are made to be used within your project’s Less code to give grid layout to your content without needing to use non-semantic grid classes.

For example, when creating a half-and-half layout, instead of applying classes to your column wrappers, like this:

<div class="col-half"> … </div>
<div class="col-half"> … </div>

You can give your wrappers semantic class names that describe their content, and apply the mixins to those semantic classes, like this:

<div class="description"> … </div>
<div class="illustration"> … </div>
.description,
.illustration {
    .grid_column(1, 2);
}

Read on for more details on the variables and mixins this component provides.

NOTE: If you use cf-grid.less directly, be sure to run the file through Autoprefixer, or your compiled Capital Framework CSS will not work perfectly in older browsers.

Variables

Wrappers

Wrappers are centered containers with a max-width and outside left/right padding of ½ the gutter width on each side.

Less mixin

.grid_wrapper( @grid_wrapper-width: @grid_wrapper-width )

You can create a wrapper with max-width other than the default by passing a pixel value into the mixin.

Example

.main-wrapper {
    .grid_wrapper();
}
.wide-wrapper {
    .grid_wrapper( 1900px );
}
This container now has left and right padding and a centered max width.
This container is the same except it has a wider max-width.

HTML code snippet

<div class="main-wrapper" style="background-color: #f9f9f9">This container now has left and right padding and a centered max width.</div>
<div class="wide-wrapper" style="background-color: #f9f9f9">This container is the same except it has a wider max-width.</div>

Columns

Less mixin

.grid_column( @columns: 1; @total: @grid_total-columns; @prefix: 0; @suffix: 0 )

Create a grid column that is @columns wide given @total total grid columns.

Optionally give the column left or right padding with the @prefix and @suffix parameters.

Grid columns use transparent borders to create the gutters of the grid, so if you want a column to have a background or border, you’ll need to add a wrapper just inside the column to be styled that way.

.main-wrapper {
    .grid_wrapper();
}
.half {
    .grid_column(1, 2);
}
.styled {
    border: 1px solid #999;
    background: #EEE;
}

NOTE: cf-grid does not have a “row” concept. If you have a 12-column grid and place 24 columns inside a wrapper, cf-grid columns will automatically stack into two rows of 12.

I am half of my parent.
I am half of my parent. I also have a border and background.

HTML code snippet

<div class="main-wrapper">
    <div class="half">I am half of my parent.</div>
    <div class="half">
            <div class="styled">I am half of my parent. I also have a border and background.</div>
    </div>
</div>

Nested columns

Since all grid columns have left and right gutters, you will notice undesirable offsetting when nesting columns. Normally this is removed with complex selectors or by adding classes to the first and last column per ‘row’.

In cf-grid, the way to get around this is by wrapping your columns in a container that utilizes the .grid_nested-col-group() mixin. This mixin uses negative left and right margins to pull the columns back into alignment with parent columns.

Working this way allows you to easily create responsive grids. You are free to control the number of columns per “row” at different breakpoints without having to deal with the first and last columns of each row.

Less mixin

.grid_nested-col-group()

Usage

.main-wrapper {
    .grid_wrapper();
}
.nested {
    .grid_nested-col-group();
}
.half {
    .grid_column(1, 2);
}

HTML code snippet

<div class="main-wrapper">
    <div class="half">
        <div class="nested">
            <div class="half"></div>
            <div class="half"></div>
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="half">
        <div class="nested">
            <div class="half"></div>
            <div class="half"></div>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>

Nesting

six
four
four
four
six
four
four
four
three
six
six
six
four
four
four
three
three
three
three
three

HTML code snippet

<div class="cols-12">
    <section>
        <div class="col col-6">
            <div>six</div>
            <section class="nested">
                <div class="col col-4"><div>four</div></div>
                <div class="col col-4"><div>four</div></div>
                <div class="col col-4"><div>four</div></div>
            </section>
        </div>

        <div class="col col-6">
            <div>six</div>
            <section class="nested">
                <div class="col col-4"><div>four</div></div>
                <div class="col col-4"><div>four</div></div>
                <div class="col col-4"><div>four</div></div>
            </section>
        </div>
    </section>

    <section>
        <div class="col col-3">
            <div>three</div>
            <section class="nested">
                <div class="col col-6"><div>six</div></div>
                <div class="col col-6"><div>six</div></div>
            </section>
        </div>

        <div class="col col-6">
            <div>six</div>
            <section class="nested">
                <div class="col col-4"><div>four</div></div>
                <div class="col col-4"><div>four</div></div>
                <div class="col col-4"><div>four</div></div>
            </section>
        </div>

        <div class="col col-3">
            <div>three</div>
            <section class="nested">
                <div class="col col-3"><div>three</div></div>
                <div class="col col-3"><div>three</div></div>
                <div class="col col-3"><div>three</div></div>
                <div class="col col-3"><div>three</div></div>
            </section>
        </div>
    </section>
</div>

Push and pull mixins for source ordering

NOTE: Using these is not advised, because the disadvantages for users of assistive technology outweigh the advantages of putting your most important content first in the source order, but it’s here if you absolutely need it.

Less mixin

.push( @offset: 1, @grid_total-columns: @grid_total-columns )
.pull( @offset: 1, @grid_total-columns: @grid_total-columns )

Usage

.first {
    .grid_column(1, 2);
    .grid_pull(1);
}
.second {
    .grid_column(1, 2);
    .grid_push(1);
}
I am first in the markup but appear after .first.
I am second in the markup but appear before .second.

HTML code snippet

<div>
    <div class="second">I am first in the markup but appear after .first.</div>
    <div class="first">I am second in the markup but appear before .second.</div>
</div>

Prefixing/Suffixing

prefix 0, suffix 11
prefix 1, suffix 10
prefix 2, suffix 9
prefix 3, suffix 8
prefix 4, suffix 7
prefix 5, suffix 6
prefix 6, suffix 5
prefix 7, suffix 4
prefix 8, suffix 3
prefix 9, suffix 2
prefix 10, suffix 1
prefix 11, suffix 0

HTML code snippet

<div class="cols-12">
    <section>
        <div class="col col-1 suffix-11"><div>prefix 0, suffix 11</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1 prefix-1 suffix-10"><div>prefix 1, suffix 10</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1 prefix-2 suffix-9"><div>prefix 2, suffix 9</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1 prefix-3 suffix-8"><div>prefix 3, suffix 8</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1 prefix-4 suffix-7"><div>prefix 4, suffix 7</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1 prefix-5 suffix-6"><div>prefix 5, suffix 6</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1 prefix-6 suffix-5"><div>prefix 6, suffix 5</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1 prefix-7 suffix-4"><div>prefix 7, suffix 4</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1 prefix-8 suffix-3"><div>prefix 8, suffix 3</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1 prefix-9 suffix-2"><div>prefix 9, suffix 2</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1 prefix-10 suffix-1"><div>prefix 10, suffix 1</div></div>
        <div class="col col-1 prefix-11"><div>prefix 11, suffix 0</div></div>
    </section>
</div>

Cf-grid helpers: Wrapper

Turns an element into a cf-grid wrapper at 801px and above (e.g., <div class="wrapper">). Includes some explicit declarations for Internet Explorer 8 due to the fact that it doesn’t support media queries.

Wrapper

HTML code snippet

<div class="wrapper">
    Wrapper
</div>

Cf-grid helpers: Column divider modifiers

See the column dividers page for information.

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